Journal of Physical Therapy and Health Promotion
Journal of Physical Therapy and Health Promotion(PTHP)
ISSN:2376-1601(Print)
ISSN:2376-1636(Online)
Frequency: Annually
Website: www.bowenpublishing.com/pthp/
Nutritional Interventions in Age-related Loss of Muscle Function
Abstract:
Purpose: To ascertain from the medical literature what evidence exists on the effect of nutritional interventions to alleviate the age-related loss of muscle strength and function (“dynapenia”) which is not the same as preventing loss of muscle mass. Methods: A search of relevant studies was conducted using the PubMed search engine, using search terms such as “muscle”, “strength”, and “aging”. Further manuscripts were obtained from the reference lists of the initial studies obtained. Results: Eighty-one studies were obtained for protein, whey, leucine, β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid, creatine, vitamin D, and combination substances. The quality of evidence for the effect of each on dynapenia, however, is weak. Conclusions and innovation: Individually, selective provision of protein, specific amino acids (especially leucine, and its metabolite β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid), creatine, and vitamin D, have consistently been shown to create small but significant gains in select parameters of muscle strength, when administered to elderly patients, often accompanied by exercise. Most studies investigated only a limited number of parameters, and for short duration. The timing and duration of nutritional interventions, including its relationship to exercise, to maximize efficacy, still needs to be clarified.
Keywords:Dynapenia; Frailty; Aging; Nutrition
Author: E. Paul Cherniack,Heather F. Lee

References:

  1. TM Manini and BC Clark, “Dynapenia and Aging: An Update,” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci., vol. 67(1), pp. 28-40, 2012.
  2. M Malaguarnera, M Vacante, PM Frazzetto, and M Motta, “What is the frailty in elderly? Value and significance of the multidimensional assessments,” Arch Gerontol Geriatr., vol. 56, pp. 23-26, 2013.
  3. AY Bijlsma, JH Pasma, D Lambers, et al., “Muscle strength rather than muscle mass is associated with standing balance in elderly outpatients,” J Am Med Dir Assoc., vol. 14, pp. 493-498, 2013.
  4. Dos Santos L, ES Cyrino, M Antunes, DA Santos, and LB Sardinha, “Sarcopenia and physical independence in older adults: the independent and synergic role of muscle mass and muscle function,” J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, vol. 8, pp. 245-250, 2017.
  5. T Moro, SM Ebert, CM Adams, and BB Rasmussen, “Amino Acid Sensing in Skeletal Muscle,” Trends Endocrinol Metab., vol. 27, pp. 796-806, 2016.
  6. H Martin, SA Aihie, K Jameson, et al., “Does diet influence physical performance in community-dwelling older people? Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study,” Age Ageing, vol. 40(2), pp. 181-186, 2011.
  7. FC Lemieux, ME Filion, S Barbat-Artigas, AD Karelis, and M Aubertin-Leheudre, “Relationship between different protein intake recommendations with muscle mass and muscle strength,” Climacteric, vol. 17, pp. 294-300, 2014.
  8. M Isanejad, J Mursu, J Sirola, et al., “Dietary protein intake is associated with better physical function and muscle strength among elderly women,” Br J Nutr., vol. 115, pp. 1281-1291, 2016.
  9. M Tieland, O van de Rest, ML Dirks, et al., “Protein supplementation improves physical performance in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” J Am Med Dir Assoc., vol. 13, pp. 720-726, 2012.
  10. D Finger, FR Goltz, D Umpierre, E Meyer, LH Rosa, and CD Schneider, “Effects of protein supplementation in older adults undergoing resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Sports Med., vol. 45, pp. 245-255, 2015.
  11. RR McLean, KM Mangano, MT Hannan, DP Kiel, and S Sahni, “Dietary Protein Intake Is Protective Against Loss of Grip Strength Among Older Adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort,” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci., vol. 71, pp. 356-361, 2016.
  12. RM Daly, SL O’Connell, NL Mundell, CA Grimes, DW Dunstan, and CA Nowson, “Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial,” Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 99, pp. 899-910, 2014.
  13. E Kelaiditi, A Jennings, CJ Steves, et al., “Measurements of skeletal muscle mass and power are positively related to a Mediterranean dietary pattern in women,” Osteoporos Int., vol. 27, pp. 3251-3260, 2016.
  14. A Granic, C Jagger, K Davies, et al., “Effect of Dietary Patterns on Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in the Very Old: Findings from the Newcastle 85+ Study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11(3), e0149699, 2016.
  15. GI Smith, S Julliand, DN Reeds, DR Sinacore, S Klein, and B Mittendorfer, “Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults,” Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 102, pp. 115-122, 2015.
  16. B Komar, L Schwingshackl, and G Hoffmann, “Effects of leucine-rich protein supplements on anthropometric parameter and muscle strength in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” J Nutr Health Aging, vol. 19, pp. 437-446, 2015.
  17. M van Dijk, FJ Dijk, A Bunschoten, et al., “Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice,” Oncotarget, vol. 7, pp. 17338-17355, 2016.
  18. B Pennings, Y Boirie, JM Senden, AP Gijsen, H Kuipers, and LJ van Loon, “Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men,” Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 93(5), pp. 997-1005, 2011.
  19. K Zhu, DA Kerr, X Meng, et al., “Two-Year Whey Protein Supplementation Did Not Enhance Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Well-Nourished Healthy Older Postmenopausal Women,” J Nutr., vol. 145, pp. 2520-2526, 2015.
  20. A Molfino, G Gioia, F Rossi Fanelli, and M Muscaritoli, “Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation in health and disease: a systematic review of randomized trials,” Amino Acids., vol. 45, pp. 1273-1292, 2013.
  21. H Wu, Y Xia, J Jiang, et al., “Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on muscle loss in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Arch Gerontol Geriatr., vol. 61, pp. 168-175, 2015.
  22. PJ Fitschen, GJ Wilson, JM Wilson, and KR Wilund, “Efficacy of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation in elderly and clinical populations,” Nutrition, vol. 29, pp. 29-36, 2013.
  23. L Berton, G Bano, S Carraro, et al., “Effect of Oral Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Physical Performance in Healthy Old Women Over 65 Years: An Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10(11), e0141757, 2015.
  24. JR Stout, AE Smith-Ryan, DH Fukuda, et al., “Effect of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) with and without resistance training in men and women 65+yrs: a randomized, double-blind pilot trial,” Exp Gerontol., vol. 48, pp. 1303-1310, 2013.
  25. LB Panton, J Rathmacher, J Fuller, J Gammon, L Cannon, S Stettler, and S Nissen, “Effect of [beta]-hydroxy-[beta]-methylbutyrate and resistance training on strength and functional ability in the elderly,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 30, S194, 1998.
  26. MD Vukovich, RM Bohlken, MF Desch, JC Fuller, and JA Rathmacher, “The effect of dietary [beta]-hydroxy-[beta]-methylbutrate on strength gains and body composition changes in older adults,” FASEB J., vol. 11, A376, 1997.
  27. MC Devries and SM Phillips, “Creatine supplementation during resistance training in older adults-a meta-analysis,” Med Sci Sports Exerc., vol. 46, pp. 1194-1203, 2014.
  28. A Moon, L Heywood, S Rutherford, and C Cobbold, “Creatine supplementation: can it improve quality of life in the elderly without associated resistance training?,” Curr Aging Sci., vol. 6, pp. 251-257, 2013.
  29. B Gualano, AR Macedo, CR Alves, et al., “Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Exp Gerontol., vol. 53, pp. 7-15, 2014.
  30. AF Aguiar, RS Januario, RP Junior, et al., “Long-term creatine supplementation improves muscular performance during resistance training in older women,” Eur J Appl Physiol., vol. 113, pp. 987-996, 2013.
  31. LA Gotshalk, WJ Kraemer, MA Mendonca, et al., “Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older women,” Eur J Appl Physiol., vol. 102, pp. 223-231, 2008.
  32. LA Gotshalk, JS Volek, RS Staron, CR Denegar, FC Hagerman, and WJ Kraemer, “Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men,” Med Sci Sports Exerc., vol. 34, pp. 537-543, 2002.
  33. DG Candow, E Vogt, S Johannsmeyer, SC Forbes, and JP Farthing, “Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults,” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab., vol. 40, pp. 689-694, 2015.
  34. MB Cooke, B Brabham, TW Buford, et al., “Creatine supplementation post-exercise does not enhance training-induced adaptations in middle to older aged males,” Eur J Appl Physiol., vol. 114, pp. 1321-1332, 2014.
  35. CL Pinto, PB Botelho, JA Carneiro, and JF Mota, “Impact of creatine supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean mass in the elderly,” J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, vol. 7, pp. 413-421, 2016.
  36. M Halfon, O Phan, and D Teta, “Vitamin D: a review on its effects on muscle strength, the risk of fall, and frailty,” Biomed Res Int., vol. 2015, 953241, 2015.
  37. DK Houston, M Cesari, L Ferrucci, et al., “Association between vitamin D status and physical performance: the InCHIANTI study,” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci., vol. 62, pp. 440-446, 2007.
  38. DK Houston, JA Tooze, CC Davis, et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and physical function in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars,” J Am Geriatr Soc., vol. 59, pp. 1793-1801, 2011.
  39. HC Janssen, MH Emmelot-Vonk, HJ Verhaar, and YT van der Schouw, “Vitamin D and muscle function: is there a threshold in the relation?,” J Am Med Dir Assoc., vol. 14(8), pp. 13-18, 2013.
  40. CH Orces, “Prevalence of clinically relevant muscle weakness and its association with vitamin D status among older adults in Ecuador,” Aging Clin Exp Res., pp. 1-7, DOI: 10.1007/s40520-016-0678-3, 2016.
  41. A Haslam, MA Johnson, DB Hausman, et al., “Vitamin D status is associated with grip strength in centenarians,” J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr., vol. 33, pp. 35-46, 2014.
  42. DK Houston, JA Tooze, DB Hausman, et al., “Change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and physical performance in older adults,” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci., vol. 66, pp. 430-436, 2011.
  43. I Rinaldi, S Setiati, M Oemardi, W Aries, and TZ Tamin, “Correlation between serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and quadriceps femoris muscle strength in Indonesian elderly women living in three nursing homes,” Acta Med Indones., vol. 39, pp. 107-111, 2007.
  44. D Scott, L Blizzard, J Fell, C Ding, T Winzenberg, and G Jones, “A prospective study of the associations between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, sarcopenia progression and physical activity in older adults,” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)., vol. 73, pp. 581-587, 2010.
  45. DK Houston, JA Tooze, RH Neiberg, et al., “25-hydroxyvitamin D status and change in physical performance and strength in older adults: the health, aging, and body composition study,” Am J Epidemiol., vol. 176, pp. 1025-1034, 2012.
  46. IS Wicherts, NM van Schoor, AJ Boeke, et al., “Vitamin D status predicts physical performance and its decline in older persons,” J Clin Endocrinol Metab., vol. 92(6), pp. 2058-2065, 2007.
  47. C Mathei, Van Pottelbergh G, B Vaes, W Adriaensen, D Gruson, and JM Degryse, “No relation between vitamin D status and physical performance in the oldest old: results from the Belfrail study,” Age Ageing, vol. 42, pp. 186-190, 2013.
  48. GM Civelek, NO Pekyavas, N Cetin, SN Cosar, and M Karatas, “Association of vitamin D deficiency with muscle strength and quality of life in postmenopausal women,” Climacteric, vol. 17, pp. 472-477, 2014.
  49. HC Janssen, MM Samson, and HJ Verhaar, “Muscle strength and mobility in vitamin D-insufficient female geriatric patients: a randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and calcium supplementation,” Aging Clin Exp Res., vol. 22, pp. 78-84, 2010.
  50. K Uusi-Rasi, R Patil, S Karinkanta, et al., “Exercise and vitamin D in fall prevention among older women: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA Intern Med., vol. 175, pp. 703-711, 2015.
  51. J Agergaard, J Trostrup, J Uth, et al., “Does vitamin-D intake during resistance training improve the skeletal muscle hypertrophic and strength response in young and elderly men? - a randomized controlled trial,” Nutr Metab (Lond), vol. 12(1), p. 32, 2015.
  52. P Flakoll, R Sharp, S Baier, D Levenhagen, C Carr, and S Nissen, “Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and lysine supplementation on strength, functionality, body composition, and protein metabolism in elderly women,” Nutrition, vol. 20, pp. 445-451, 2004.
  53. MG Bemben, MS Witten, JM Carter, KA Eliot, AW Knehans, and DA Bemben, “The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men,” J Nutr Health Aging., vol. 14, pp. 155-159, 2010.
  54. DW Russ, C Acksel, IM Boyd, et al., “Dietary HMB and beta-alanine co-supplementation does not improve in situ muscle function in sedentary, aged male rats,” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab., vol. 40, pp. 1294-1301, 2015.
  55. JC Fuller Jr., S Baier, P Flakoll, SL Nissen, NN Abumrad, and JA Rathmacher, “Vitamin D status affects strength gains in older adults supplemented with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and lysine: a cohort study,” JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr., vol. 35(6), pp. 757-762, 2011.
  56. JM Bauer, S Verlaan, I Bautmans, et al., “Effects of a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement on measures of sarcopenia in older adults, the PROVIDE study: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” J Am Med Dir Assoc., vol. 16, pp. 740-747, 2015.
  57. M Rondanelli, C Klersy, G Terracol, et al., “Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation in sarcopenic elderly,” Am J Clin Nutr., vol. 103, pp. 830-840, 2016.
  58. S Abe, O Ezaki, and M Suzuki, “Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial,” J Nutr., vol. 146, pp. 1017-1026, 2016.
  59. HJ Kim, CK Kim, A Carpentier, and JR Poortmans, “Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation,” Amino Acids., vol. 40, pp. 1409-1418, 2011.
  60. JR Poortmans and M Francaux, “Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: fact or fiction?,” Sports Med., vol. 30, pp. 155-170, 2000.
  61. G Bjelakovic, LL Gluud, D Nikolova, et al., “Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev., vol. 1(6), CD007470, 2014.
  62. SM Ebert, MC Dyle, SA Bullard, et al., “Identification and Small Molecule Inhibition of an Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent Pathway to Age-related Skeletal Muscle Weakness and Atrophy,” J Biol Chem., vol. 290, pp. 25497-25511, 2015.
  63. NJ Lim, JH Shin, HJ Kim, et al., “A combination of Korean mistletoe extract and resistance exercise retarded the decline in muscle mass and strength in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial,” Exp Gerontol., vol. 87, pp. 48-56, 2017.