Journal of Earth Science Research
Journal of Earth Science Research(JESR)
Frequency: Annually
Artificial Recharge Flux to Nubian Aquifer System in Tushka, Egypt
Recharge of groundwater aquifers is one of the water management tools, which becomes necessary when the water resources are limited, for non-renewable aquifers, or to overcome saltwater intrusion. There are several methods for artificial groundwater recharge using injection wells or surface recharge. The surface recharge methods are less costly compared to deep injection in wells. However, the technical feasibility of the surface recharge remains an issue, which is dominated by the percolation capacity of the vadose zone. This research study estimates the percolation rate through the vadose zone in Tushka area to recharge the Nubian aquifer by making use of the excess flood water diverted to Tushka Khur. Two artificial recharge techniques were evaluated: irrigation return flow, and water percolating from recharge basins. Hydrus-1D was used to simulate water flow in the vadose zone and, consequently, estimate the recharge flux to the aquifer. Several scenarios were proposed, in which the recharge flux was estimated including recharge basin, different evapotranspiration, and irrigation rates. The simulations were conducted for two extreme values of hydraulic properties for the soil layers in the vadose zone. Field data records of groundwater monitoring wells and 10 recharge basin experiments for the period from July 2001 to November 2014, were used to calibrate the numerical models. The lag time ranged from 3 to 95 days depending on the recharge scenario and the hydraulic properties of the soil layers. The recharge efficiency ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% for recharge basin scenarios, and from 0.4% to 69% for irrigation scenarios.
Keywords:Recharge; Groundwater; Vadose Zone; HYDRUS-1D; Tushka; Nubian Aquifer
Author: Mustafa Elkhedr,Heba Abd El-Aziz Abu-Bakr,Taher Mohammed Hassan


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